Sunday, 29 April 2018

Birmingham Brickworks - part 3

In part 3 of Birmingham Brickworks I cover these areas ;- California, Harborne, Quinton & Hay Mills.

I kick off this post with the three brickworks as shown on the 1882 map below in the California area of Birmingham. After which I write about a fourth works at California which is not on this map & was situated on the northern side of Stonehouse Lane (red), just off to the left hand side of this map. 

I have already wrote about John Garlick's Lappal Tunnel Works (coloured yellow) in Birmingham Brickworks - part 2, but I will briefly say that John Garlick established this works in 1876 & it was operational until Garlick went bankrupt in 1884. The Lappal Tunnel Works was then re-started by Smarts Brickworks Ltd. in the early 1900's. The purple coloured works was started by Isaac Flavel & then taken over James Smart & I write about this works shortly. But before I do, I write about John Barnes at the orange coloured works.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1882 x2.

John Barnes

So on to the orange coloured brickworks as shown on the 1882 map above which was accessed off a lane which went to Weoley Castle & it's farm. Today this road is called Somery Road (pink) & it was named after Roger de Somery of Dudley Castle who built his moated Manor House (Weoley Castle) here in 1264. Before the orange coloured brickworks had been established, this wharf side site, locally known as Weoley Castle Yard had been used to load stone onto canal boats for distribution via the Dudley No.2 Canal. A tramway (orange/red) was built in 1840 to connect the stone quarry (red) to the wharf. This tramway was later re-routed to a claypit bringing the clay to the brickworks. A search of the web may have revealed the owner of the stone quarry with the stone required to build St. Marks Church in Birmingham in 1840 coming from quarries owned by J.F. Ledsam Esq. of Weoley Castle.

The exact date when the brickworks was built is unknown. Justine Halifax on the Birmingham Live website writes that local resident John Barnes who owned a wharf was one of the first to establish a small brickworks in California, but no date is given. With finding that Isaac Favell is recorded as starting the purple coloured brickworks, this Justine Halifax information connects Barnes to the orange coloured works. I then found that White's 1873 trade directory lists John Barnes as brickmaker in Northfield, again connecting Barnes to the orange coloured yard which he may have established in 1872. There are no more listings in directories for Barnes until Kelly's 1879 edition, when the entry records his brickworks as being at California, Northfield & this entry continues up to the 1883 edition. As there are no more brickmakers listed in trade directories at this California works after Barnes, I am taking it that Barnes closed his brickworks shortly after 1883. The 1900 OS map no longer shows this brickworks.

William Dargue on his website writes that Barnes Hill road coloured lime green on the map above was named after John Barnes, a Master Brickmaker who lived at Blakenell Corner. William continues to say that the 1851 Census records eleven households at Blackenell Corner. So I am taking it Barnes was listed in this census as living there in 1851.

Isaac Flavell

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1882.

Isaac Flavell was born in Gornal in 1792 & in 1842 he purchased Stonehouse Farm situated on Stonehouse Lane, establishing his brickworks there by 1845. I expect at this 1842 date Stonehouse Farm was classed as being in Weoley Castle village because it was only after Flavell had built himself the California Inn around 1850 next to the Lappal Tunnel portal in the Parish of Northfield that this area was named California after his Inn. The earliest reference I have found for this area being called California is in 1875. Although Flavell & his wife, Ann (nee Chinn) are recorded as living at the California Inn in 1851, the Inn was run by his brother-in-law, Henry Chinn & his niece Rebecca Flavell. I am taking it that the date for Flavell being at the California Inn came from the 1851 census as the writer of the article which this info comes from states that Flavell was employing 50 labourers, but this may have included men who worked on his farm as well as his brickworks. From reading several accounts about Flavell I have got the impression that he was a bit of an entrepreneur & he may have been persuaded to purchase Stonehouse Farm in 1842 as a result of a 1835 survey of the farms land which resulted in finding a good bed of brickmaking clay just below the surface. It has to be noted that after this 1835 survey there was no immediate take up of the land for brick making until Flavell purchased the farm & established his brickworks there which I have coloured purple on the 1882 map above. I also mention that more than likely Flavell's brickworks & claypit in the 1840's would have only been situated between Stonehouse Lane & the canal, next to the farmhouse. There is the option that Flavell started the claypit on the north side of Stonehouse Lane in the 1840's/50's, but it was the next owner of the works James Smart who expanded it to the size that is shown on this 1882 map.

Flavell transported his bricks & tiles via the Dudley, Worcester & Birmingham canals to his own wharf depot on Gas Street in the centre of Birmingham. It was from this depot that builders could purchase his bricks to build an ever expanding Birmingham, so I expect his bricks & tiles were in great demand. The first trade directory entry that I have found recording Isaac Flavell as brick & tile maker is in White's 1845 edition & this entry only lists his Gas Street depot & not his works address. Kelly's 1849 & 50 editions then records his works at Northfield & on the next line in these two directories it lists I. Flavell, 5, Gas Street & as we know this was his wharf side depot. Slater's 1852 edition only records his Gas Street depot in the Brick & Tile Makers section of this directory. White's 1855 edition again only lists Gas Street in the Brick & Tile Makers section, but there is the addition of Joseph Chinn, agent, so it appears that Isaac was now employing one of his wife's relatives to run the Gas Street depot. 

Morris's 1862 edition now records Isaac Flavell only in the Brick Merchants section at the Brick Wharf, Gas Street & not as a brickmaker. I then found that a web article states that in the 1860's Flavell first leased his brickworks to James Smart & then completed the sale of the works to James Smart before his death. Another article states that Flavell is still recorded as a brickmaker, contractor, farmer & victualler at the California Inn when he was in his 70's, so this takes us to around 1862/3 & this ties in with the 1862 directory only recording him as Brick Merchant. We find in Kelly's 1867 edition that it lists James Smart as brickmaker in Northfield, so I am thinking that the lease of the works to Smart took place between 1862 & 1867. Smart had previously owned a brickworks at Harborne before taking over Flavell's California brickworks & I write about James Smart soon. 

Back to Flavell & again he is listed as Brick Merchant at Gas Street in Kelly's 1867 edition & he would have been 75 in that year. It is also the last entry for him as he is not listed in Kelly's 1868 edition. The 1872 edition now lists James Smart as Brick Merchant at Gas Street. Isaac Flavell died in 1870 & as previously wrote Flavell completed the sale of his brickworks to Smart before his death & this transaction may have been in 1886/7 with Smart then taking over the Gas Street depot between 1867 & 1872. No bricks stamped Flavell have been found so far & there must be thousands upon thousands out there unless he did not stamp his bricks, but with him being the entrepreneur that he was, I think he will have stamped his bricks, so please keep a look out for me !

James Smart

Before I write about James Smart brickmaking at his California Brickworks, Northfield, trade directories first record him at a brickworks on Mill Lane, Harborne & I have coloured this works yellow on the 1882 map below. Today Mill Lane (red) is called Harborne Park Road. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1882.

The first trade directory listing for James Smart as brickmaker at Harborne is in Kelly's 1849 edition & this entry is repeated in Kelly's 1850 edition. My next entry is the 1862 edition of the Corporation of Birmingham directory & this entry lists James Smart at Mill Lane, Harborne. There is the possibility that the J. Smart brick below may have been made at Harborne with the frog shape being very ornate, if not it will have been one his first bricks to be made at his California Works. We find that as time moves on, say after the 1880's, deep fancy crisp designed frogs & lettering are replaced by more simpler designs & lettering, & the frog is also not so deep.  

We next find the Mill Lane works in Kelly's 1867 edition is now listed as J. Sadler & Sons, Mill Lane, Harborne, so James Smart had sold his Harborne works to Sadler sometime between 1862 & 1867, with Smart moving to his new California Works at Northfield by 1867 as per Kelly's 1867 directory for him. 

I now slightly digress to write a little more about Sadler at this Mill Lane works & the following brickmaker. J. Sadler & Sons continue to be listed at this Mill Lane works until Kelly's 1872 edition. I think I am correct in writing that this J. Sadler was the highly regarded John Sadler, brickmaker at Oldbury because my first trade directory that I have listing John Sadler at Shidas Lane, Oldbury is in Kelly's 1876 edition. I then think Sadler sold the Mill Lane works & then moved to nearby Oldbury by 1873 as I have found that White's 1873 edition now records Marshall Frederick Raybould at this Mill Lane works & I write about Raybould later in the post as I wish to get back to James Smart at the California Works.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

Now on to James Smart at the California Works, Northfield coloured purple on the 1900 OS map above & I have found quite a bit of info was wrote in 2009 by a writer called Mumbles on the Genealogy Forum website. Mumbles writes that James Smart initially leased the California Works from Isaac Flavell with Smart then completing the purchase of the works before Flavell's death in 1870. Now my last trade directory for Smart at Mill Lane, Harborne is 1862 & another article states that Smart was running two works at Harborne & California in the early 1860's. So with Flavell only listed in Morris's 1862 directory as Brick Merchant, I think this is when Smart started leasing Flavell's California Works in 1862.

It's in Kelly's 1867 edition that it now lists James Smart as brickmaking at Northfield which I am taking to be the California Works. We also find in this 1867 directory that it now records J. Sadler & Sons at the Mill Lane Works, Harborne. Therefore with Sadler taking over the Harborne works, Smart then completed the purchase of the California Works from Flavell in 1866/7, this was after initially leasing it since 1862. Then it was after 1867/8 that Smart took control of the Gas Street depot as Flavell was still listed as Brick Merchant at Gas Street in Kelly's 1867 edition.

Smart set about making improvements to his new California brickworks by building a narrow gauge railway which ran via a tunnel under Stonehouse Lane from his claypit opposite to the brickworks (see map above, both coloured purple). I have to note that this claypit may have been started by Isaac Flavell in the 1850's. With Smart adopting the all-year production method of making bricks, weathered clay was transported in tubs via this railway to be crushed, moulded into bricks & then partially dried in cooling kilns & drying sheds, before their final kiln firing. Smart's claypit is recorded as being 40 foot deep & this rich bed of clay lead to the Birmingham Patent Brick Co. setting up their brickworks in the next field to Smart's claypit & I write about this company shortly. 

Kelly's 1868 edition again records Smart at Northfield, then Kelly's 1872 edition just records in the Brick & Tile Makers section J. Smart at 6, Gas Street which was the depot address in the centre of Birmingham. With the address of Gas Street changing from number 5 in Flavell's day to number 6 for Smart, I expect Smart had just moved to a large premises on the wharf. From 1880, directories record Smart at number 7, Gas Street, so another move.

Another bit of info from Mumbles article says that in the 1871 & 1881 census, James's son William is recorded as brickmaking along side his father. The 1871 census also records James as brickmaker & employing 24 men & 14 boys at California. White's 1873 edition again records James Smart at Northfield & Gas Street. We next find in White's 1875 edition the entry is now James Smart, The California Red Brick & Quarry Works, Northfield; Halesowen Blue Brick, Tile & Quarry Works; & The Wharf, Gas Street, Birmingham with John Randle as manager. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1881.

I have established from Worcestershire trade directories that James Smart's Halesowen works was on Birmingham Road at Heywood & is shown as the Lion Works (yellow) on the 1881 map above. This map shows Birmingham Road as Mucklow Hill & this road is still called this today. With this works having canal access James would have easily transported his blue bricks (example below) to his Gas Street depot. I have to note that trade directory entries spell Heywood as Haywood. Then there are two questionable entries in Kelly's 1872 edition for this works. The first is the entry for I. Flavell at Halesowen, but Isaac from my findings had died in 1870 ? My only thoughts on this one is that it recorded the works as being owned by Flavell before Smart took over. The second questionable entry in this 1872 directory is for Henry Smart brickmaking at Halesowen & I think this should read James unless James did have a brother or son called Henry. We know he had a son called William brickmaking for him from the 1871 census. Kelly's 1876 to 1892 editions does list James Smart at Haywood, Halesowen with the 1884 entry also listing Birmingham Road in the address. With James Smart dying in April 1892 we find that F.J. Nash is listed in Kelly's 1892 & 96 editions at this Halesowen works. 1896 is the last entry for Nash & this works may have closed soon after this date as the works is shown as disused on the 1900 OS map. 

As I have digressed with writing about the Halesowen works, I now return to the Northfield works which from White's 1875 edition is now called the California Works & James Smart is listed with this new works address up to Kelly's 1883 edition. 

Photo by MF courtesy of the John Baylis Collection.

Kellys 1884 to 1897 editions now lists the company as James Smart & Sons, so it appears that James's son, William from 1884 was now taking a more active rolled in the running of the company, previously the 1871 & 81 census only recorded William as working for his father. We next find the 1891 census records James Smart as retired & his son William is listed as the owner of James Smart & Sons. Then as previously wrote James died in April 1892. William Smart continues to run the brickworks to around 1897, as we then find in Kelly's 1899 edition that the entry is Smart's Brickworks Ltd., California & Lappal Tunnel Red Brick & Quarry Works, Northfield via Quinton.  

According to A.H. Stevenson Smarts Brickworks Ltd. had been formed to purchase the California Works from William Smart in 1897. It appears William Smart did not play any part in the running of this new company as he is not listed on the board of directors. The directors of this new company were Josiah Derrington, John Horton Blades & William Roberts. Also joining the board as directors at a later date were Brownlow W. Blades, brother to John H. Blades & Josiah Pearce Derrington, son of Josiah Derrington.

Also included in the purchase of the California Works from the Smart Family was the Lappel Brickworks last worked by John Garlick in 1884. The date when the Smart Family actually acquired or if they ever worked the Lappal Tunnel Works is unknown, but what is known is that Smarts Brickworks Ltd. had the Lappal Tunnel Works up & running again erecting new buildings & installing new machinery & plant by 1904. This newly installed machinery made bricks using the plastic & wire cut method. However this works appears to have had a short life closing again by the start of WW1, never to be reopened again, but I have to note that the Lappal Tunnel Works is still listed in Kelly's 1915 edition. The last of the derelict buildings at this former Lappal Tunnel Works were demolished in the 1960's & the site was used a municipal rubbish dump.

Stevenson writes in his 1933 book that this new company was the first to install a continuous kiln of Belgian type in the Birmingham District at the California Works. He also writes that the present directors of the Company were Messrs. Edward (Teddy) C. Blades, A. Guest & B.C. Ottey.

A floor quarry tile made by Smarts Ltd.

Going back to the trade directory entries for the company & the 1899 entry of Smarts Brickworks Ltd. continues up to Kelly's 1915 edition. For some unknown reason the Company is not listed in Kelly's 1921 edition (next available directory) unless the California Works had not been re-opened after the war at this 1921 date ? My next directory is Kelly's 1932 edition & the entry is Smarts Brickworks Ltd, Barnes Hill, California, Quinton. This entry continues up to the last directory available in 1940. A web article records the California Works was the last to close in the area in the 1950's. Today the former California brickworks site has been grassed over & the former clay pit site on the opposite side of Stonehouse Lane has been levelled & a fire station has been built with the rest of the site being covered in trees & a grass area. The former Lappal Tunnel site is now the home of a Asda supermarket store. 

If you are interested, photos of a California brickworks can be seen at the link below, but the brickworks is not named in the article. I am almost certain that it's Smart's with one photograph showing a Hoffman type kiln, a similar photo is shown in the next link below. Someone has wrote on the Birmingham Forum website that Weoley Library have a large collection of photographs of Smart's brickworks, so I expect that some of these photos on this first link are the ones in the library. 

In this link there are two photos of the Lappal Tunnel portals & the one of James Smart's brickworks.

Birmingham Patent Brick Co. / Simkin / William Ward

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

It was with James Smart exposing a rich bed of clay 40ft deep at his purple coloured claypit which lead to the Birmingham Patent Brick Co. setting up their brickworks in the next field (green). 

The Birmingham Patent Brick Co. was formed in 1874 by Edward & Henry Loader Ensor, firebrick makers of Woodville, Burton, Brownlow William Blades, brickmaker of blue bricks in West Bromwich & William Henry Ward a Birmingham architect. Both the Ensor Brothers & B.W. Blades were still running their own works at the same time. B.P.B. Co's works (green on the map above) was on Stonehouse Lane, California, Birmingham situated near to the No.2 Dudley Canal. The works consisted of six kilns, two of which were capable of producing 75,000 bricks each per firing & the other four kilns were capable of producing 46,000 each per firing. The Birmingham Patent Brick & Tile Co. Ltd. is first listed in White's 1875 edition with works at California, Northfield, John Lewis, secretary & office address of 1,Temple Row West, Birmingham. This entry is also listed in Kelly's 1876 edition. 

We then find that this Patent Brick Co. only had a relative short existence because in September 1877 B.P.B.Co. was wound up. Ray Shill writes in his book that this works changed hands after 1877 & was later owned by William Ward, one of the founders of B.P.B. Co. in the 1880's. The London Gazette reveals that the company had not been fully wound up, one notice dated 13th January 1885 under the heading of Joint Stock Companies Register first gives the company three months to come forward to declare their situation, then as this does not appear to have taken place a second notice dated 28th April 1885 then states that B.P. B. Co. had been stuck off the Register, therefore the company had been dissolved. Bricks stamped B.P.B. Co. have yet to be found, so if you have got one please let me know, thanks.  

So on to Ray Shill's account of the works changing hands in 1877 & this ties in with trade directory entries recording the Simkin family brickmaking at California between 1879 & 1884. William Edmund Simkin is listed Kelly's 1879 & 80 editions at California, Northfield & Edward Wellington Simkin is listed in Kelly's 1882 & 84 editions at California, Northfield. All of the other works in California can be accounted for at these dates, hence my theory of the Simkins being at this works. Again no bricks stamped Simkins have been found.

We next find in 1888 that William Ward is now the owner of this brickworks with Ward being listed in Kelly's 1888 edition at California, Northfield. William Ward continues to be listed in Kelly's directories at this works until the 1908 edition & the Ward brick below will have been made between 1888 & 1908. The next available map in 1914 only shows the old claypit & Ward is not listed in Kelly's 1912 edition, so the works must have closed soon after 1908.

There is the option that Ward may have still had an interest in the Works while the Simkin's where brickmaking on this site as other accounts of Ward record him "later taking control of the Works in the 1880's after being on the board of BPB Co." If I get anymore information on this I will update the post.

This brick appears to be behind bars, but it is behind the netting to a brick making machine at Avoncroft Museum.

William Ward is also listed as owning a second works at Bourneville. Kelly's 1899 edition records the works at Raddlebarn Lane, today it's Road & coloured red on the 1902 map below. Then Kelly's 1900 to 1905 editions list the works on Elm Road, coloured green. I expect that in 1899 Elm Road had not been built & it was only an access lane to the works from Raddlebarn Lane. William Ward set up this brickworks to provide bricks to George Cadbury for his model village. Cadbury had built his chocolate factory together with 16 houses for his senior employees in 1879. Cadbury then purchased another 120 acres in 1893 to build his Bournville model village for the rest of his workers. With Ward being at his California Brickworks since 1888, I expect he initially provided Cadbury with bricks made at this works until he set up his Elm Road works around 1898. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1902.

M.F. Raybould & W. Raybould

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1882.

This brickworks on Mill Lane, Harborne had previously been owned by James Smart 1849 to 1867 & then by John Sadler & Sons 1867 to 1872/3. We next find in White's 1873 edition that Marshall Frederick Raybould is listed at Mill Lane, Harborne & at Powke Lane, Oldhill near Rowly Regis. At this Powke Lane works Raybould was in partnership with Samuel Partridge & Joseph Guest with whom he had worked with since 1856, but Raybould was to shortly leave this partnership to concentrate on brickmaking at his new works at Harborne. The break up of this partnership must have taken place by 1875 as Raybould is only listed at Harborne in Kelly's 1875 Birmingham edition & Partridge & Guest are only listed together in Kelly's 1876 Staffs. edition. 

I slightly digress as I found that in a 1856 London Gazette Notice that Partridge, Guest & Raybould were also in partnership with John Tranter, brickmaking at Powke Lane, Oldhill operating under the company name of S. Partridge & Co. This notice records that Tranter then left the company on the 23rd September 1856 with the company name then changing to Partridge, Guest & Raybould. I have also found S. Partridge is listed at Oldhill in White's 1851 edition, so Raybould may have joined Partridge as early as say 1854/5. I have estimated that Marshall Frederick Raybould was brickmaking for around 44 years & will have been in his 60's when he retired. 

We next find in Kelly's 1899 to 1905 editions Walter Raybould is listed as brickmaking at Harborne Park Road (previously named Mill Lane), Harborne & I taking it that Walter was Marshall's son & had taken over his brickworks. This works may have closed under Walter's ownership as the 1913 OS map only shows the old clay pit. An example of one of Walter's bricks is shown after the map.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1901.

As a footnote I have found another brickmaker with the name of Raybould in Birmingham Directories, so whether this Raybould is the same Marshall Frederick Raybould I do not know, as no initials are given in these entries. The entries are Upton & Raybould, Highgate Brickworks, Leopold Street, Birmingham in Kelly's 1867 & 1868 editions. The 1872 edition only then records Joseph Upton at Leopold Street. So if it is Marshall Frederick Raybould in this Upton & Raybould partnership then the years of 1867/8 tie in with him then moving to his Harborne brickworks in 1873. On saying that Raybould at the same time was brickmaking at Oldhill with Partridge & Guest to around 1875, so how he was managing his time at each works is unknown. 

T. Williams, New Bridge

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1886.

Thomas Williams is listed in Kelly's 1868 to 1875 editions at Newbridge, Yardley, but in White's 1873 edition there is the one entry for Thomas Williams owning a second brickworks on Garrison Lane & I have written about this Garrison Lane (Albert Works) in Birmingham Brickworks - part 2. I have coloured this New Bridge works yellow on the 1886 map which shows the works disused at this date. We next find John William Clements is brickmaking at this yard & he is listed at Newbridge, Yardley in Kelly's 1876, 78 & 79 editions, after which I expect the yard closed. No bricks stamped Newbridge by either Williams or Clements have been found.

W. Loach, Quinton

Loach & Sons are listed in Kelly's 1879 & 80 editions at Beech Lane, Quinton. I also found that another brickmaker, Edward Airey is also listed at Beech Lane, Quinton in Kelly's 1876 to 1884 editions. The 1881 map below only shows one named brickworks (purple) & this was actually on Birch Road (green). I then spotted on the other side of Birch Road that there is a clay pit (orange) & a couple of buildings & I have come to the conclusion that this was the Loach's brickworks, but not named as such on this 1881 map because at the time this map was surveyed the Loach family had closed their brickyard. With Edward Airey still listed in directories up to 1884, I am almost certain that he was the brickmaker at the marked purple brickworks. Why trade directories listed both brickmakers as working on Beech Lane (coloured red) & not Birch Road is unknown, unless it was because Beech Lane was the main road into Quinton. The yellow coloured road is called The Hawthorns & at some point there had been a brickyard on this road with the marked old claypit. I also found another brickmaker, Thomas Bird is listed at the Beech Lane in Kelly's 1872 & White's 1875 edition, so he may have been at the purple works before Airey.

I have found a snippet of information on the web about the Loach family. Alfred Loach is recorded as brickmaker in 1880 & living with his family at Beech Lanes, so was he W. Loach's son ? The 1902 OS map now longer shows the purple works only the claypit & today Birch Walk & Birch Grove are built on this former brickworks site. Houses are also built where Loach's yard was on the opposite side of Birch Road & one cul de sac is called Squirrels Hollow. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1881.

Hay Mills

Under this heading I write about the five brickworks that where in Hay Mills & their many owners. At one stage two of the brickworks were both owned by Derrington & Sons, another company then took over both works & this was followed by one works closing & the other one changing hands again. So I start with the purple works on the 1886 OS map below. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1886.

Skelding & Barkling are listed in Kelly's 1879 edition at Red Hill, Yardley & I taking it that the yard that I have coloured purple was the one owned by this duo. Frank Barklam is next listed at Red Hill in Kelly's 1880 edition with the entry of Milton Crescent, Long Causeway, Yardley; & at Red Hill. Hulley's 1881 edition now lists Skelding & Barklam at Red Hill. Kelly's 1882 edition just lists Frank Barklam on his own at Red Hill. So I am wondering if the 1879 directory listing of Barkling should read Barklam ? There are no more trade directory entries for this works after 1882 & the 1900 map no longer shows this yard.

Now on to the green coloured works as shown on the 1886 map above. From later information found I have established that this works was owned by the Shipway family & another article records that the Shipway family started this works in the 1850's. Kelly's 1878 edition lists Henry Shipway at the Speedwell Brick Works, Red Hill, Yardley. This is the only entry for Henry Shipway at this works as Kelly's 1876 edition lists him at a works in Sparkbrook, Yardley & a map of that area does show a disused clay pit, so I don't think that this Sparkbrook entry could be classed as the Speedwell Brickworks in Hay Mills. We next find in Kelly's 1884 edition that Edwin Shipway & Co. are listed at this green coloured works with the listing of ; Works & Canal Wharf, Speedwell Road; office & retail yard, Coventry Road (orange), Hay Mills. Stevenson writes in 1933 book that Josiah Derrington purchased Henry Shipway's yard at Hay Mills in 1888 or 1889, with the yard then becoming Derrington's No.1 Yard. So it appears Henry Shipway was still one of the owners in the Edwin Shipway & Co. No bricks stamped Shipway have been found so far. Before I write about Josiah Derrington at this yard, I first write about the yellow coloured yard owned by Henry Powley who later, also sold his yard to Derrington.

Now on to the yellow coloured works & Henry Powley & Co. are first listed in Kelly's 1879 edition with the works address of Speedwell Brickworks, Red Hill, Yardley. This entry is slightly confusing as it is the same works address given by Henry Shipway. This address is then rectified in Kelly's next edition in 1880 & the entry now reads Henry Powley & Co. Yardley Brick Works, Hay Mills, Yardley. Whether this 1879 address entry was a mistake by Kelly's or if Powley did first call his works, Speedwell is unknown, but it was sorted out by the next directory. Powley & Co. are then listed in Kelly's with this Yardley Brick Works address until it's 1890 edition. Kelly's 1883 & 84 editions also include the office address of Coventry Road, Hay Mills. At this moment in time no bricks stamped Powley & Co. have turned up. Stevenson writes that Josiah Derrington purchases Powley & Co.'s yard around 1890 & it then became his No.2 Yard.

Photo by MF courtesy of the John Baylis Collection. 

I have been unable to establish who made the very elaborate Hay Mills Works, Yardley brick above, but I favour Powley & Co.

So with the green coloured works (1888) & the yellow coloured works (1890) now both owned by Josiah Derrington, he called his two works - No.1 yard & No.2 yard & this is when both works started to expand to the size as shown on the 1900 OS map below. Stevenson writes that Derrington initially suffered severe losses at his No. 1 Yard through fire & the complete flooding of the works on the eve of the new Century ! Derrington after purchasing the adjoining No. 2 Yard from Powley & Co. then set about taking out & scrapping unsuitable machinery & for a few years bricks were made by hand. In 1896 a wire-cut machine was installed & this was the first to work successfully in the Birmingham area. 

Josiah Derrington & Sons are listed at Hay Mills in Kelly's 1888 to 1915 editions with the addition of Speedwell Road added from the 1904 edition. As early as 1878 Josiah's son, Josiah Pearce Derrington is recorded as working along side his father, but when Josiah Pearce took over the running of the Company from his father is unknown. Josiah Derrington died at the age of 85 in 1920. For the Derrington's Garrison Lane Works, please see my article in Birmingham Brickworks - part 2

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Derrington's then sold their two yards to the Builders & General Traders' Co. who are listed in Kelly's 1921 to 1933 editions with the address of Speedwell Road, Hay Mills. We next find between 1933 & 1936 the green coloured yard closed & the yellow coloured yard was taken over by the Yardley Brick Co. 

The Yardley Brick Co. are listed in Kelly's 1936 to 1940 editions with the address of Speedwell Road, Hay Mills. The 1938 edition records the works address as 198, Speedwell Road, hence me attributing the yellow coloured works to this Company. The only other works on Speedwell Road at this date was the Waterloo Works & this was owned by the Bayliss family & I write about this works next. Going back to the Yardley Brick Co. & the year this works closed is unknown, but with WW2 taking place I should think this is when it closed. No bricks stamped Yardley Brick Co. have been found so far. A web article states that after the green & yellow brickworks had closed the clay pits were used as municipal rubbish dumps by Birmingham Council.  

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1938.

Now on to the Waterloo Brick Works (purple) as shown on the 1900 & 1938 maps above. This new works was started by Henry Hemming around 1895 & Henry is first listed at this works in Kelly's 1900 edition with the address of Speedwell Road, Hay Mills, Yardley. Henry continues to be listed with this works address up to Kelly's 1912 edition. Stevenson writes that Henry Hemming personally supervised the works ensuring that his bricks were well made & produced at the right price. The well laid out yard consisted of the most modern machinery of it's day with the drying sheds being heated by exhaust & live steam. A continuous Belgian kiln was then used to fire the bricks. 

Stevenson writes that after Hemmings had sold his Waterloo Brickworks he then started a new works at Wood End, Earlswood. Now I have found that Earlswood was originally situated in the Parish of Solihull, hence this quarry tile photographed in a friends collection being stamped Solihull. I have been unable to determine the location of this Wood End works as it is not shown on the 1913 map.  

Going back to the Wellington Brickworks & Hemming then sells his works to Frank & William Bayliss around 1913 with these two brothers being first listed in Kelly's 1915 edition with the works address of Speedwell Road Hay Mills. This entry continues until Kelly's 1933 when the entry is just for William Bayliss. Kelly's 1936 edition now lists the company as Bayliss Brickworks Ltd. A web article states that this works closed in 1969 with it's owners being the Birmingham Brick Co., but I have been unable to find any concrete evidence to back up this account. 

Photographs of Bayliss's brickworks & bit more info on Hay Mills brickworks can be seen/read at this link.

There's one more brickworks to write about & this is the blue coloured yard shown on the 1900 map above. I am sorry to say that I cannot find any information or trade directory entries for this yard which was also accessed off Speedwell Road. This works is not on the 1886 map & is only shown as a clay pit & pond on the 1913 map, so the only option that I can offer is that it may have been worked by Josiah Derrington & Sons. If I get the answer to this conundrum, I will update the entry. Please get in touch if you know the answer to this works owners, Thanks.

I wish to thank the following :- 
National Library/Ordnance Survey - maps
Chris Thornburn & John Baylis - for allowing me to photograph their brick collections. 
I have gathered some information from a book called Workshop of the World - Birmingham's Industrial Heritage by Ray Shill to whom I am indebted. Also from this link by Ray Shill.
Info for this post has also come from A.H. Stevenson's 1933 book & these four sites.

Friday, 6 April 2018

Birmingham Brickworks - part 2

In part 2 of Birmingham Brickworks I continue with the  brickmakers & companies who operated in the Garrison Lane, Saltley & Bordersley Green areas of Birmingham.

Elson & Burke

This brickworks which was later owned by Robert Elson & George Burke as per brick above was set up by George's father, John Burke in the 1860's on land just north of the railway station on Bordesley Green Road, Saltley. For the location of this works please see the map below & it's the yellow coloured brickworks marked as the Adderley Park Brick Works on this 1887 dated map. Bordesley Green Road is coloured light green. This Elson & Burke partnership were the forerunners to the Adderley Park Brick Co. & I write about APB a little later.   

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

So going back to John Burke & he is first listed in Kelly's 1867 edition at Saltley & this is followed with the same entry in the 1868 edition. John had previously owned a brickworks at Whitehouse Common, Sutton Coldfield, which he had run in the 1840's & 50's. By 1861 John & his family had moved to  Wattville Street, Handsworth, which I have found is a distance of six miles to his Saltley brickworks. So a fair distance to travel every working day, unless he had a horse & cart ?

Kelly's 1872 edition now records Mrs. Maria Burke as the owner of the Saltley works & I have found that John had passed away. Fellow researcher, Stuart Mugridge records John as being married to Eliza, unless Maria was her middle name ? Stuart goes on the say that John & Eliza had a son called George who was born around 1843 in Sutton Coldfield. By 1861 George, aged 19 was a brickmaker & boarding in Aston & I am assuming George was working at another brickworks & not alongside his father. So with Maria Burke now in charge in 1872 we find that George joins her at the works after his father's death & this may have been in 1873 as there is an entry of John Burke, Arden Road, Saltley in White's 1873 edition & I think this entry should read George Burke instead, because firstly John had passed away at least a year earlier & then Stuart has found that the 1871 census records George Burke, his wife Lucy & their three young girls as living on Arden Road. This road is adjacent to the northern edge of the Burke's brickworks & I have coloured Arden Road orange on the 1889 map above.

Also in White's 1873 edition we now find that Elson & Burke are listed as now owning this brickworks on Bordesley Green Road & this partnership was Robert Elson & George Burke with the possibility that Maria may have still had an interest in the running of the company. Robert Elson at the age of 20 in the 1841 census was recorded as a bricklayer & then the 1851 census records him as beer seller. The 1871 census records him as a retired victualler with the 1881 census recording him back in brick trade as a Brickworks Manager. So this ties in with Elson joining George Burke in their joint venture as brickmakers in White's 1873 trade directory.

 Photo by MF courtesy of the John Baylis Collection.

The Burke's up to Robert Elson joining the concern had operated their yard in the "Summer Style", that is to say digging the clay & letting the frost break it down over winter months before processing & making bricks from the smooth clay during the summer months, but this was to change under the guidance of Robert Elson & Walter Dauncey to all year brickmaking with the addition of new machinery & plant which included a steam grinding mill & coal-fired drying sheds. This machinery vastly improved the quality & quantity of their facing bricks. Walter Dauncey had joined the company shortly after Elson, but his stay at this works was only a short one because in 1875 Dauncey took up the position of secretary & manager of the newly formed Globe Brick Co. on Garrison Lane.  

Elson & Burke & Co. are listed in White's 1875 edition with the address of Adderley Park Road (coloured olive green on the map above or below), today it's called Ash Road & Adderley Park Road joins Bordesley Green Road near to the entrance to the works. Kelly's 1876 edition then records Elson & Burke & Co. with the works address of Adderley Park Brick Works, Saltley & it was shortly after this 1876 entry that the Adderley Park Brick Co. was formed & took over the running of the yellow coloured works. By the way the Adderley Park Works coloured green was a later works open in 1882.

Adderley Park Brick Co.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

The Adderley Park Brick Company was set up by Robert Elson & George Burke with Elson becoming managing director & Burke taking on the roll of works manager. 
So basically APB was just a company name change orchestrated by Elson & Burke & they were now running the yellow coloured brickworks under their APB flag. George Burke had the technical skill & ability to run a brickworks, but he knew his vocation in life & was happy to remain as works manager until his death in 1906. This account of George Burke was written by Albert Stevenson in his book about Birmingham's Brick Masters which he wrote when retired from the Globe Brick Co. 

The Adderley Park Brick Co. Bordesley Green Road, Saltley is first listed in Kelly's 1878 edition with Joseph James Edwards recorded as secretary. I have coloured this brickworks yellow on the map above. We then find Robert Elson is joined by James Moffatt in running the company & this may have been around 1880. Moffatt in the 1861 census is recorded as a retail brewer living with his wife at the Acorn Inn on Cheapside. Then by the 1871 census Moffatt had moved into the building trade as a builder & was living on South Road, Sparkbrook. It appears Moffatt may have continued as a builder during his time at APB.

On the 24th January 1882 Elson & Moffatt signed a 16 year lease with land owner the Right Honourable Charles Bowyer, Baron Norton of Norton in the Moors, Staffs for four pieces of land in Saltley amounting to 24 acres, the largest of which was just south west of Adderley Park railway station on Bordesley Green Road. This is where APB built their new brickworks (coloured green on the map above) & the company paid £79. 11 shillings per year for the use of this land plus royalties on the amount of bricks & tiles produced at the rate of 2 shillings per 1000. This lease must have been extended possibly several times as this works was still operational in the 1940's. Another parcel of land which I have also coloured yellow on the map above on the other side of Church Road (coloured grey) stipulates in this agreement that access to this land had to be via a tunnel under Church Road & no brick making was to take place on this land only the extraction of it's upper clay & sands. The 1889 map above shows that APB followed these instructions to the letter & a tramway had been built to transport the clay under Church Road to the works. Robert Elson died five years after signing this 16 year lease at his home on Church Road, Saltley on the 26th November 1887.

We then find that the 1902 OS map no longer shows the company's original brickworks (coloured yellow) north of Adderley Park railway station & the Wolseley Car Company with works situated opposite on the other side of Bordesley Green Road had taken over this site to test their vehicles on the rough terrain. By 1920 this land had been filled in & levelled & the Wolseley Car Company had built their East Works on this site. Below is a photograph taken from the air in 1920. The Adderley Park Brickworks (green site) is shown sandwiched between the railway & Wolseley's aeroplane works, centre right in this photo & then on the north side of the railway line you can see Wolseley's new East Works (large rectangular building).

If you register & sign in for free at the above link you can zoom in on this photo & view the brickworks in a higher resolution.

James Moffatt died on the 12th September 1914 with the brickworks continuing under the ownership of the Moffatt family. Albert Stevenson in his book records Albert Cotton, Henry France, J.J. Edwards & George Petford as being the owners or working at APB up to 1933. 

An APB advert which appears in Kelly's 1938, 39 & 40 editions.

With APB continuing to be recorded in Kelly's trade directories up to the last one available in 1940 we find in Stuart Mugridge's account of the company that it was William Moffatt (son of James) who was chairman at the time the company went into liquidation in October 1946. We then find Thomas Ward, scrap metal merchants took over the site & today the site is filled with a variety of car breakers yards & industrial units.

If you would like to read more about the Adderley Park Brick Co. & it's founders please click on Stuart Mugridge's link.

Denston's Brickworks

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1889.

While I was gathering information together for this post I found that this was the only yard in the Garrison Lane area that had not been given a name & as it was started by John Denston around 1849. I have therefore titled this entry "Denston's Brickworks."

The first trade directory that I have listing John Denston as brickmaker on Garrison Lane is in Kelly's 1849 edition & I have established from later records of this brickworks that it was the works which I have coloured green on the map above. John is then listed in Kelly's, Slater's, White's & Corporation of Birmingham directories until 1867. John is not listed in Kelly's 1868 edition, but we then find in Kelly's 1872 & White's 1873 the entry is James Denston & I am taking it that James was John's son. No bricks stamped Denston have been found so far. With no more trade directories listing James Denston we then find in White's 1875 edition that this Garrison Lane works is now listed as being owned by Josiah Derrington. 

Josiah Derrington

But before I write about Josiah Derrington taking over James Denston's Garrison Lane Works, I write about Josiah Derrington's earlier brickmaking career.

Josiah Derrington (b.12.3.1835) was first in partnership with Edward Hales & web article records that from 1858 Derrington & Hales were making hand moulded bricks at a yard on Primrose Hill, Duddeston which closed in 1864. We then find in Kelly's 1868 edition, D & H are listed as brickmaking at Leopold Street, Highgate & Great Lister Street. This is the only entry for the Great Lister Street yard, so could this Great Lister Street yard be the same yard as the Primrose Hill yard ? I then found in Stevenson's 1933 book that Josiah Derrington's son E.G. Derrington writes ;- "that his father's works was on "Primrose Hill" (what is now Rupert Street) & I believe this yard closed in 1864." The 1887 map below shows that Rupert Street connects to Great Lister Street adjacent to the Windsor Street railway siding, so from this info I think they were the same yard & this yard was situated opposite the railway siding on the corner of Rupert Street & Great Lister Street where houses are shown built on the 1887 map below (coloured green). If my theory is correct, the date to when this Primrose Hill/ Great Lister Street yard closed can now be extended to after 1868. There is the option that the yard may have stood on the opposite side of Rupert Street on the land which later became the railway siding ?

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

Now on to Derrington & Hale's Leopold Street brickyard in Highgate as recorded in this Kelly's 1868 entry & from a web article this yard had been established by the duo on land leased from the trustees of the Vaughton Estate in 1864. This yard used the onsite clay to make the bricks needed for the houses & factories that where being built in the Highgate area at the time. Kelly's 1872  & 1873 editions now only list Josiah Derrington at the Leopold Street yard, so the partnership of Derrington & Hales must have been dissolved. A search of the London Gazette has revealed that the partnership had been dissolved on the 12th of March 1869 & the entry is as follows. 

NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership hitherto subsisting between us the undersigned, Josiah Derrington and Edward Hales, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, as Brick Makers, under the firm of Derrington and Hales, is this day dissolved by mutual"consent. All debts due and owing to and by the said partnership firm will be received and paid by the said Josiah. Derrington, by whom the trade will in future be carried on.—As witness our hands this 12th day of March, 1869.
Josiah Derrington. Edward Hales.

Kelly's 1872 edition also lists Josiah Derrington in the Brick & Tile Merchants section as owning a building merchants yard to supply blue & red bricks, fire-bricks, chimney pots, sand, cement, lime, coal, etc to the trade at 182 Dartmouth Street. This builders merchants enterprise was to run alongside his brickmaking business for many years. 

Towards the completion of these houses & factories in the Highgate area, Derrington's Leopold Street brickyard closed sometime between 1873 & 1875 & more houses where built on the former brickworks site afterwards. Derrington in the meantime was on the move to a yard on Garrison Lane which he took over from the Denston family. 

As a footnote, I have also found in Kelly's directories from 1868 to 1878 that several more brickmakers had established small yards to provide bricks for this Highgate project & they were Upton & Raybould, Highgate Brickworks, Leopold Street; Thomas Mills, Leopold Street; Joseph Upton, Highgate Brickworks, Leopold Street; H.W. Hulse, Leopold Street; William Henry Harrison, Highgate Street; John Powell, Upper Highgate Street & Henry Franz, Upper Highgate Street.  

There is the option that this Derrington & Hales brick was made at either of the duo's works at Primrose Hill or Leopold Street, but I am favouring the latter with it being an ornamental brick.

Now back to the Denston Brickworks on Garrison Lane & White's 1875 & Kelly's 1876 editions now records Josiah Derrington as brickmaking at this Garrison Lane works previously owned by John then James Denston. The location of this works (green) is shown on the 1889 map below.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1889.

The bricks shown above & below will have been made by Josiah Derrington at his Garrison Lane works. Originally there where two yards on this site, the main works which faced St. Andrews Street worked on steam power & consisted of three kilns & the works is shown on the 1889 map above. A smaller yard with two kilns which existed in 1875 was at the southern end of this site near to Coventry Road. The 1889 map above no longer shows this smaller yard, but it will have been situated next to the ponds/lakes at the end of the lane, shown as a dotted line on the map above from Emmeline Street.

In Kelly's 1878 edition, Josiah Derrington is again listed at Garrison Lane then on the next line there is the listing of Josiah Pearce Derrington (b.12.3.1856) as brickmaker, & lime & coal merchant. From a family website I established that Josiah Pearce was the son of Josiah & he was born on the same day in March as his father. This family website also records Josiah's other son as Edwin George Derrington (b.1859 d.1943) & he is recorded as a Builders Merchant, so he will have worked at the family's Builders Merchants yard on Dartmouth Street. We next find in Kelly's 1880 edition that the entry is now J.Derrington & Sons, Garrison Lane together with the listing of the builders merchant yard on Dartmouth Street. As to when Josiah Pearce Derrington took over the running of the business from his father is unknown as future trade directory entries always list the company as Josiah Derrington & Sons.

Kelly's 1888 edition next records Derrington & Sons with a second brickworks situated at Hay Mills & the Derrington's had taken over this works from Reuben Shipway & I write about the Derrington's Hay Mills works in part 3 of Birmingham Brickworks. 

 Photo by MF courtesy of the John Baylis Collection.

Back to the Garrison Lane works & this works continues to be listed as being owned by Derrington & Sons in Kelly's up to it's 1892 edition, after which this works closed & full production was transferred to Hay Mills which had been operational since 1888. The land on which this former Garrison Lane brickworks had stood was derelict for many years until the St. Andrews football ground was built there by Birmingham Football Club in 1906, with the first match against Middlesborough taking place there on Boxing Day 1906. The score by the way was a 0-0 draw. 

A quarry tile made by Josiah.

Another snippet of information from this family website reveals that Josiah Derrington (b.1835) in the 1911 census on the 2nd of April was living at the Manor House, Lyndon Green, making him 76 in 1911. Another site records Josiah died at the age of 85 in 1920. In 1926 a water fountain was erected in Yardley Old Park in his memory & in 2012 this garden was restored. Please see link for photos of this fountain & the garden being restored.

Thomas Williams

Thomas Williams is listed in Kelly's 1868 to 1875 editions at Newbridge, Yardley, but in White's 1873 edition there is the one entry for Thomas Williams owning a second brickworks on Garrison Lane.  

With studying maps, later info for this works & another brick found I have established that Thomas Williams yard was not actually on Garrison Lane, but situated on land between a road called Bordesley Green & Green Lane, hence Green Lanes being stamped on the brick above. Garrison Lane is only a short distance from this brickworks, so that is why I think Garrison Lane was used for the trade directory entry. As I only have the 1887 map (below) this works is shown as the Albert Works - coloured yellow. The road called Bordesley Green - purple, Green Lane - green & Garrison Lane - orange. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

We next find that Thomas Williams was in partnership with George Savage at the Albert Brick Works. Savage had previously owned the Atlas Brickworks on Garrison Lane between 1872 & 1875.

Savage & Williams

Although I do not have any trade directory entries for Savage & Williams, I think the duo were in partnership possibly between 1876 & 1878 at the Albert Brickworks & again same as Williams's trade directory entry, this brick is also stamped Garrison Lane, but as you can see on the map in the Williams entry the Albert Brickworks was actually situated off the road called Bordesley Green. 

I have to say at this point I have no written evidence of this Savage & Williams partnership only the brick above, because a web article states that the Albert Brickworks was started by George Savage in 1878, the date of which corresponds with Savage's first trade directory entry recording him at the Albert Brickworks. Despite this web article, I still think the partnership of Savage & Williams took place before George Savage ran the Albert Brickworks on his own & with me owning one of these S & W bricks, I think this is my proof of this partnership plus me identifying that Williams was brickmaking at this works in 1873. If written evidence is found to back up my findings, I will update the post.

George Savage

George Savage is first listed at the Albert Brickworks, Bordesley Green in Kelly's 1878 edition. A.H. Stevenson writes in his 1933 book that "Savage made enough money from the sale of his Atlas Brickworks to Albert Humpage to comfortably retire on, but with Humpage making large profits at his former works Savage decided to give brick making another go." As you have already read I think this was in 1876 & it was through Savage's partnership with Thomas Williams that he acquired William's, Albert Brick Works. Up to yet no bricks just stamped George Savage have been found.

There is a gap in trade directories for Savage & the next entries are in Kelly's 1882 & 83 editions & they read George Savage & Co. Bordesley Green. With Albert Humpage demanding more & more bricks for his many building projects in Birmingham from all of the brickmakers in the Garrison Lane area, Savage invested heavily in his Albert Brickworks to produce his quota hoping to make a profit. He installed a Hoffman type kiln with the capacity to hold 500,000 bricks, three new drying sheds & three clay mills. A steam engine was installed to raise the clay via a tramway from the clay pit. Steam was also used in the drying of the bricks before firing.

Savage spent all his savings on modernising his plant to hopefully achieve a profit from Humpage's demand for bricks, but we find that after he had run out of money he woefully put his Albert Brickworks up for sale in February 1884. 

A.H. Stevenson writes in his 1933 book. "The story of George Savage's attempt to come back is the saddest of the lot. He was a capable, hard-working man & had made quite a success of his Atlas Works before selling to Mr. Humpage. His venture at his new works proved to be a different story, he laboured himself like a Trojan, but all to no avail as his bricks were not first rate. He had lost his goodwill & eventually lost too, the whole of his capital & savings." 

Stevenson continues "This was not the end of this ill-fated yard. After the failure of George Savage to do any good there, the works was taken over by a London company who introduced the semi-dry method of press to kiln at the works. Gossip & a report of the time said that over £30,000 pounds was spent by this firm in a vain attempt to make a success of this method." 

We then find that due to this failed attempt to successfully produce bricks by this semi-dry method this London company closed the works & this may have been by 1888 as there is no entry for the Albert Brickworks, Bordesley Green in Kelly's 1888 edition. The Albert Brickworks then was re-opened in 1895 by the Bordesley Green Brick Works Co. & I write about them next.

Bordesley Green Brick Works Co.

The Bordesley Green Brick Works Co. is first listed in Kelly's 1895 edition with Henry C. Davis as Managing Partner at Bordesley Green & as previously wrote this is the Albert Brickworks (coloured yellow on the map below). This listing is repeated in Kelly's 1897, 99 & 1900 editions. 

A.H. Stevenson writes in his book " The Albert Brickworks was later re-opened by a large firm of house builders - Messrs. Davis & Simmonds, who after producing bricks at the works for many years mainly for their own use, closed down the yard as they found they could buy bricks from the adjoining new firm of the Little Bromwich Brick Co. owned by Mr. Winterton at a lower price than they could produce them themselves ! "

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

The brick below shows the works address as Charles Road & this road was built along the same route as the marked footpath which I have coloured red & this may have been around 1900. The brickworks was then accessed off this new road.  

The Bordesley Green Brick Works Co. is not listed in Kelly's 1903 edition & I have found that the works had more than likely closed by 1902 as there are only four small buildings shown next to the claypit on the 1902 map & these buildings are not marked as a Brick Works. This map also shows that houses had been built along part of Charles Road together with the houses which fronted onto Bordesley Green on the northern edge of the brickworks site & this is where the brickworks had originally been accessed from. Please see the 1902 map in the next entry showing these changes. 

Little Bromwich Brick Co.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1902.

Mr. W.H. Winterton established this brickworks on land just off Bordesley Green in 1898 & his Little Bromwich Brick Co. is first listed in Kelly's 1899 edition at Bordesley Green with John Henry Weston recorded as Managing Partner. I have coloured this works yellow on the 1902 map above. John H. Weston continues to be listed as Managing Partner up to the 1908 edition. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1912.

Kelly's 1915 edition now records Limited in the company title & it also lists a second works at Black Pit Lane, Ward End (now St. Margret's Avenue). Although not marked I think the area which I have coloured yellow may have been this yard. A newspaper article records that this small yard owned by the Little Bromwich Brick Co. consisted of a single kiln & was built to use the onsite clay to make the bricks required for the terraced houses that were being built along Washwood Heath Road. These good quality terraced houses continued to be built right up to the start of the First World War. With more & more men signing up to go to war I expect this small yard closed soon after 1915. As I cannot be 100% certain that this small yard occupied the yellow area it is possible that it was actually situated at the end of Black Pit Lane which I have coloured purple. We then find that Mr. Winterton re-opened this works after the war & renamed it as the Castle Bromwich Brick Co. & I write about this company shortly, but before I do I return to Little Bromwich's Bordesley Green works. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1913.

Now back to Bordesley Green & I have added this 1913 map to show how much the works had expanded in the short period of time from 1899. This may well have been when the brickworks was at it's most productive because the 1938 map shows that the works had virtually not changed since the 1913 map, with only one building shown larger in size. The Little Bromwich Brick Co. Ltd. continues to be listed in Kelly's directories until the last one available in 1940. We then find that LBBC under the chairmanship of G.H. Major was voluntary wound up at a special meeting on the 15th day of October 1951 with Mr. Cecil Edgar Fletcher of Leicester appointed as the Liquidator. I have found that G.H. Major was the son-in-law of Mr. Winterton.

As a footnote the 1887 OS map shows an old kiln & a pond where Mr Winterton was to later build his Little Bromwich Brickworks & checking trade directories has revealed in Kelly's 1884 edition, John Richard Chirm is listed as brickmaker at Bordesley Green, so there is a good chance that Chirm worked this small yard.   

Castle Bromwich Brick Co.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1938.

The Castle Bromwich Brick Co. was owned by Mr. W.H. Winterton & is first listed in Kelly's 1921 edition with the address of Black Pit Lane, Ward End. Mr. Winterton re-opened his Little Bromwich Brick Co's Black Pit Lane yard (possibly the yellow area) after WW1, re-naming the works as the Castle Bromwich Brick Co. A.H. Stevenson writes in his 1933 book that after WW1 both plants (Bordesley Green & Ward End) were managed first by Mr. Squires then later by Winterton's son-in-law, G.H. Major. 

As previously wrote in the LBBC entry there is the option that this Black Pit Lane works was actually situated at the end of Black Pit Lane in the area which I have coloured purple, because A. H. Stevenson writes in his book that Mr. Winterton leased land from Viscount Newport at Castle Bromwich in 1912, erecting a works similar to his works at Bordesley Green. I then found that Ray Shill writes in his Birmingham Brickmakers book that a large manufactory consisting of drying sheds & a continuous fired kiln (Hoffman) was later built on the site. So to me these descriptions indicate that LBBC & CBBC occupied the same land & it was the purple coloured area. We know from an aerial photograph of the CBBC works that it did occupy the purple area & this photograph is shown in Ray Shill's book with the accompanying text which states that the photograph is in Birmingham Archives.

The next Kelly's directory that I have available is the 1932 edition & it records the Castle Bromwich Brick Co. on Bromford Lane (red), Ward End, so this is definitely the purple coloured area. CBBC continues to be listed on Bromford Lane in Kelly's directories to the last one available in 1940. Ray Shill records that the works closed in 1967. As previously wrote the Little Bromwich Brick Co. went into voluntary liquidation in 1951 under the control of G.H. Major, but the liquidation of LBBC does not appear to have effected CBBC with this works remaining open until 1967 & still being run by the Winterton/Major family. No bricks stamped Castle Bromwich Brick Co. have been found so far.

Peter Payton

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

Peter Payton & Co. is first listed in Kelly's 1867 edition at the College Works, Saltley (coloured lilac on the 1887 map above) & this brickworks was situated on Couchman Road (mid blue). Although I cannot be 100% certain I think Peter Payton was brother to George Payton as George is recorded as brickmaking on Garrison Lane during the same period of time as Peter. I have already wrote about George Payton in Birmingham Brickworks - part 1. A web article just states that George & Peter were of the same family. I have also found a Joseph Payton brickmaking at Billesley Common, Yardley Wood & Joseph is listed in Kelly's 1872 to 1880 editions. So could this Joseph also be related to Peter & George as well ?

Peter Payton continues to be listed at the College Works until Kelly's 1876 edition. Kelly's 1872 & White's 1873 editions also records Peter with the address of Chester Street & this road runs adjacent to the canal, so I expect Peter had a stockyard on this road from where he load his bricks on to canal boats for distribution via the canal network.

The entry in Kelly's 1878 edition for the College Works, Saltley is now for Frederick Payton & he may have been Peter's son ? In my search to establish a family connection, I found a family website containing information about a Frederick Payton, born around 1800 & recorded as a brickmaker in Birmingham in the 1840's & 50's, but we can discount this Frederick as he died on the 26th March 1877. On saying that he did have a son called Frederick junior. This article does not state Frederick junior's trade, but there is the option of this Frederick junior being a relation to Peter & he did follow Peter as brickmaker at the College Works ? It also crossed my mind if Peter was this Frederick's (b.1800) son, but this article does not record a Peter as being one of Frederick's sons. This article also states that the 1851 census records Frederick Payton as a brickmaker, aged 51 & living on Saltley Road with his family. I then found in Slater's 1852 edition that this Frederick Payton (b.1800) was a brickmaker on Garrison Lane.

In 1878 the College Works consisted of three kilns & two drying sheds & this will have been when Frederick Payton was at the works. We next find in Kelly's 1879, 80 & 82 editions the listing is now for Thomas Lewis & Co, College Works, Upper Saltley. There are no more listings for the College Works after the 1882 entry, so what year the works closed is unknown, but the 1902 map shows that houses had been built on this former brickworks site. 

John Garlick

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

John Garlick is recorded as a builder & railway contractor, but for around five years he owned/ran two brickworks & he is listed in these Kelly's directories.  
1879 - John Garlick & Co. Upper Saltley with John Gibson listed as manager, then on the next line, John Garlick, Lappal Tunnel Works, California, Northfield. 
1880 - John Garlick & Co.Upper Saltley, but not listing John Gibson; John Garlick, Lappal Tunnel works, plus on the next line, John Garlick, Commercial Street, this could have been his office address or his distribution warehouse/yard as Commercial Street is next to the canal.
1882 - same as the 1880 entries plus Worcester Wharf is added to the Commercial Street listing, so with Worcester Wharf being just off Commercial Street, Garlick may have owned two warehouses next to the canal unless as said, Commercial Street was his office address & Worcester Wharf was his distribution warehouse ? 
1883 - Lappal Tunnel Brick Co. (J. Garlick, secretary), Worcester Wharf; works, California, Northfield; John Garlick, Commercial Road. There is no listing for the Upper Saltley works ?

John Garlick was living at Shaw Hill House, Upper Saltley in 1881 & his Saltley brickworks was situated close by on Anthony Road & I have coloured this works red on the 1887 map above & Anthony Road dark red. The three story house on Naseby Road where Garlick lived is today a warehouse & William Dargue has written a very interesting article all about this house & the Shaw Hill area, if you care to read it.

As listed in the 1882 directory Garlick also had a depot at Worcester Wharf on the Birmingham & Worcester Canal to transport his bricks via the canal network. He also used the Dudley No. 2 Canal for transporting his bricks from his Lappal Tunnel Works. I write more about the Lappal Tunnel Works later.

I then found this information in an article written by A.H. Stevenson which appeared in a 1933 edition of the British Clayworker journal. Stevenson writes ;- John Garlick made nothing but loss of the "City" works. After trying for some time to make a go as a hand-made yard, he boldly introduced machinery, but only with the most disastrous results. He put in machine after machine of various kinds, but none of them could be made to work satisfactorily. He was a very impulsive & quick tempered man & becoming very enraged at the constant failure to get good results from his efforts, he proceeded to the works one Sunday morning & "set about" a recently installed machine with a sledge hammer & broke it to pieces ! Again he tried to work it as a hand-made yard, but was never really successful. 

Stevenson continues ;-  After John Garlick had gone bankrupt in 1884 & his City Brickworks on Anthony Road, Saltley had been derelict for many years, it was then rented by "Johnny" Bond who installed a wire-cutting machine. Now this City Works is not listed in any trade directories under John Bond's name, but there is the entry of the City Tileries & Brick Works, Anthony Road, Saltley with John Lewis as manager in Kelly's 1892 to 1905 editions & I am taking it that this company was owned by John Bond as per Stevenson's reference to "Johnny" Bond. A document in Birmingham Archives now backs up Stevenson's account of Johnny Bond taking over the lease at the City Tileries & Brick Works, Saltley. This document records that John Bond, builders merchant & brickmaker of Watery Lane on the 9th of March 1885 took out a 21 year lease on land in Saltley owned by Charles Bowyer, Barton Norton of Norton-in-the-Moors, Stafford. Bond then built a continuous kiln at the works in the early 1900's. 

The City Tileries & Brick Works final 1905 trade directory entry also coincides with John Bond's last 1905 Kelly's entry at his Watery Lane Brickworks, as it was not long after this date that John Bond emigrated to America. 

Kelly's 1908 edition now records John Lewis & Sons, City Works, Anthony Road, Saltley, so it appears that Lewis moved up from works manager to lease owner of this works. This is the only entry for John Lewis & Sons as we next find the City Brick Co. is next record at the City Works. There is the option that John Lewis or his sons owned the City Brick Co., but I do not have any evidence confirming that statement. I write about the City Brick Co. in the next entry, but before I do I write about John Garlick's Lappal Tunnel works & him going bankrupt.

The Lappal Tunnel brickworks was established in 1876/7 by John Garlick & I have coloured this works yellow on the 1900 map below. I have used the online continuous sheet 1900 map which shows Garlick's works (disused at this date) because the 1882 map only shows half of the brickworks & the rest is shown on another map sheet. I then have coloured the Lappal Canal Tunnel orange on this map to indicate where it ran underground under the roads & brickworks. To get his bricks to the canal wharf for distribution via the canal network, Garlick built a tramway from his works to the wharf via a short tunnel which ran under Barnes Hill road & this tramway is shown on the map below, part of which is in the purple coloured brickworks area. The works consisted of up to-date plant which included grinding machines & brick presses & bricks were fired in a patented continuous "German" kiln, so I am taking this to be a Hoffman kiln. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Lappal brickworks as said was started & owned by John Garlick, but we find in Kelly's 1883 edition that the entry is the Lappal Tunnel Brick Co. with John Garlick listed as secretary. A web article has revealed that John Garlick formed this Company in September 1882 to run the brickworks & he was the principal shareholder. The article then says Garlick mortgaged the "Works" to bedstead makers, John & Joseph Taunton to raise £5000 pounds & I expect the Taunton's then became shareholders in the company. 

Two years later in 1884 Garlick declared himself bankrupt & although I have search the archives of the London Gazette newspaper for a bankruptcy notice of this event, no notice has been found. As a result of Garlick's bankruptcy & the closure of his businesses, 700 men who worked for him lost their jobs. I expect only a small proportion of this 700 workforce would have worked for him at his brickworks, the rest would have been employed in his railway & other businesses. This web article then goes on to say that John & Joseph Taunton as "Mortgagees" instructed the sale of the "Brickworks" to recover their investment. Although not stated in this article who actually purchased the Lappal Tunnel Brickworks it does goes on to say that James Smart & Co. re-started this works sometime after 1900, so I am reading this as James Smart & Co. was the purchaser. James Smart died in 1892 & his company was run by his executors, this will have been his sons as Kelly's 1895 edition lists the company as James Smart & Sons. In 1897 after Kelly's 1897 edition had been published recording James Smart & Sons again, the Smart's then formed a public limited company to run their brickworks & Kelly's 1899 edition now records this new company as Smart's Brickworks Limited, California red brickworks & quarry; &, Lappal Tunnel brickworks. So I expect with the Smart family purchasing the Lappal Tunnel works the Taunton's got all or part of their investment back. I write more about James Smart in Birmingham Brickworks - part 3. 

Update 5.5.18.
I have now found a notice in the London Gazette detailing John Garlick's proceedings of declaring himself as going into liquidation & this notice is dated 10th January 1883, a whole year earlier than other researchers & writers have put in their articles. This notice records John Garlick as a builder, contractor, manufacturer of joinery at the Saltley Works, Saltley & Brick & Tile Maker at Upper Saltley, residing at The Laurels, Gravelly Hill, Aston.

I therefore conclude with Kelly's 1883 edition recording John Garlick as secretary of the Lappel Tunnel Brick Co. John may have still been running this works in 1883 until John & Joseph Taunton as "Mortgagees" of the Company decided to the sell the brickworks to recover their investment & this may have taken until 1884 to finalize ? I will update the entry if more info comes to light.

City Brick Co.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1902.

With John Lewis & Sons being last recorded at the City Works, Anthony Road, Saltley in Kelly's 1908 edition we find that a new company is then recorded at this works in 1912. 

The City Brick Co. is first listed in Kelly's 1912 edition at the City Works, Anthony Road, Saltley (red coloured works on the 1902 map above) & this entry continues until the last available Kelly's directory in 1940. The year this works closed is unknown, but the 1938 map shows that houses were either built or in the process of being built on the land which surround this brickworks, therefore I am thinking that this works was not far off in closing & if I get the date when this works closed, I will update the entry. As of yet no bricks stamped City Brick Co., Saltley have been found.

George Goodall

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1887.

George Goodall is first listed as brickmaker at Upper Saltley in Kelly's 1878 edition & this entry is repeated in Kelly's 1880 & 82 editions. It's in Kelly's 1883 edition that George Goodall is listed with the address of Anthony Road, Saltley & I have established that Goodall's yard was either the orange coloured works or the olive green coloured works situated on Anthony Road (red) on the map above, but I favour the olive green works. This 1883 entry is the last listing for Goodall. 

Although I have not photographed any bricks made by the following brickmakers I did a search of trade directories to see who else operated in Saltley. Kelly's 1888 to 1905 editions lists Mathew Frost on Anthony Road, Saltley & I have established that Frost owned the olive green coloured works as this works is still shown operational on the 1902 map (map shown in City Brick Co. entry above) & Frost may have taken over this works from George Goodall who is last listed in Kelly's 1883 edition. 

Then William Brittain is listed as brickmaking on Couchman Road, Saltley in Kelly's 1879 to 84 editions. This is the blue coloured works on the 1887 map above. As there are no listings for anymore brickmakers on Couchman Road after this Brittain 1884 entry I think this when this works closed because the 1902 map shows the brickworks as disused (see map in City Brick Co. entry).

We are then left with establishing who owned the orange coloured works on Anthony Road as shown on the 1887 map above. As wrote George Goodall could have been at this works between 1878 & 1883, but I favour him being at the olive coloured works. I have found these two brickmakers recorded at Upper Saltley, William Stevenson is listed in Kelly's 1876 & 78 editions & then Thomas Hunt is only listed in Kelly's 1879 edition, so they may have been at this orange coloured works, but who else followed them at this works at the time of the 1887 map is unknown. We do find that this orange coloured works no longer appears on 1902 map & houses are shown occupying this former brickworks site (see map in City Brick Co. entry).

I wish to thank the following :-

Stuart Mugridge - Info on Adderley Park Brick Co.
National Library/Ordnance Survey - maps
Chris Thornburn & John Baylis - for allowing me to photograph their brick collections. 
I have gathered some information in this post from a book called Workshop of the World - Birmingham's Industrial Heritage by Ray Shill to whom I am indebted. Also some information about John Garlick has come from Ray's article on the Dudley No.2 Canal & it's Lappal Tunnel.