Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Sheffield Brickworks - part 1

Twenty Well Stone & Brick Co.

The site of the Twentywell brickworks first started as a quarry on Twentywellsick Lane, Sheffield which is recorded on a 1840 map.
Tedbar John Tinker is recorded as owning the quarry before the railway was built & it maybe the reason that Tedbar built his brickworks to provide the thousands of bricks required to build the nearby Bradway Tunnel.

Michael Hardy who's grandfather worked at this brickworks has recently sent me this 1888 newspaper cutting & information relating to the role played by the Twentywell Brick Works in the construction of the Sheffield to Manchester Railway built between 1888 – 1893. Bricks from Twentywell were used in the construction of the Totley (Bradway) Tunnel.

Twentywellsick which is shown marked on the 1900 map below appears to have come from the 12th century name of the area, Quintinewelle - St. Quentin's Well & now it's modern variation Twentywell. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

I have a reference that The Twentywell Stone & Brick Co. first appeared in White's 1872 edition & the first trade directory that I have is Kelly's 1876 edition & the works is listed as The Twenty-Well Stone & Brick Co. Abbeydale Road, Norton, Sheffield. Kelly's 1881 edition now records the address as Bradway, Norton, Sheffield. It is in Kelly's 1891 edition that Tedbar John Tinker is listed as proprietor of the works & this entry continues until the 1908 edition. 

Another newspaper cutting dated March 1898 & info from Michael relating to the sale of the freehold of the Twentywell Brickworks & Quarry and all outbuildings, plant and machinery, the Castle Inn and the adjacent row of dwellings and various properties at Bradway. The Quarry & Brickworks were leased to Tedbar Tinker with the lease shortly to expire.

Lot 1 below refers to the group of buildings which still stand today at the top of Twentywell Lane. The “corner grocer’s shop” now has a different use but is substantially unchanged since 1898. The “6 dwelling houses” listed includes the cottage occupied by the Slater family from the 1880s until after WWII. In 1898 the cottage was rented by my great grandfather William Slater, brick maker and his wife Annie Elizabeth and children and subsequently by his son, my grandfather Joseph Slater and his wife Annie Elizabeth and children including my mother Evelyn Slater born in the cottage in 1927. After Joseph Slater’s death at Twentywell Brick Works in 1928 his widow, my grandmother, continued with the tenancy until she remarried and moved to Sheffield.

Tedbar Tinker may have purchased the quarry & brickworks himself at this date with his lease ready to expiry, but at this moment I do not have this confirmation. He may have carried on leasing the land from the new owners.  

The next entry I have for the works is in Kelly's 1928 edition when the listing is Twentywell Brick Co. Twentywell Lane, Dore, Sheffield & this entry continues to the 1935 edition. Tedbar's works closed in 1939 but it was the mid 1950's before the buildings & office were demolished. A housing estate now occupies this site.

Photo by Frank Lawson.

Malcolm Adlington has contacted me with information gathered by his relation Michael Hardy about his ancestors accidental death while working at Tedbar Tinker's Twentywell Brickworks in November 1928. 
Sorry about the image quality. Joseph Slater died while he was cleaning & oiling the plant before the shift started & the go ahead for the machinery to be started had been given resulting in Joseph falling into the machinery.

Malcolm has also sent me this 1930's photo of Joseph's children together with their friends the Wragg family in their garden of the works owned cottage. Note the 20 Well bricks displayed on the wall.

A Twentywell's advert sent by Malcolm, possibly dated late 1870's / 1880's. 

Photo by Malcolm Adlington.

Photographed in Brimington, Chesterfield.

Many thanks to Malcolm Adlington for sending me his family history for this post which was researched & collated by his relation Michael Hardy, who is a grandson of Joseph Slater. Also thanks to Michael for the information he has sent me directly.

Klondyke Brick Co.

Photo by Frank Lawson.

The wonderfully named Klondyke Brick Company is listed in White's 1905 edition on Middlewood Road, Wadsley Bridge in Sheffield followed by the 1908 edition as the Klondyke Brick Works, Middlewood Road. 
The name of this brickworks may have come from the nearby Klondyke Villas which were built in 1902. In 1912 the works is recorded as being owned by W.J. Patchett & then followed by G. Beaumont. By 1919 the works was now owned by Daniel Doncaster & Son & he stamped his bricks D.D. with a diamond between the D's. Daniel is listed in Kelly's 1923 edition at the Klondyke Brickworks, Middlewood Road, Hillsborough, Sheffield with the works closing in 1936. The site now has houses built on it. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

1900 O.S. map showing the location of the Klondyke brickworks situated near to Sheffield Wednesday's football ground & just across the road from the Don Brick Works, which I will cover later.

Photo by MF from the Frank Lawson Collection.

With this brick being marked Klondyke Brick Works it may have been made after 1908.

Nunnery Colliery Co.

 Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Nunnery Colliery was sunk in the early 1860’s close to the city centre of Sheffield & a brickworks was established in the early 1900’s, producing half a million bricks per month. The colliery & brickworks were Nationalised in 1947 with the pit closing in 1953 & I also expect the brickworks closed at the same time. Today Parkway Avenue runs through the middle of this site with industrial units built on both sides.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
The course of one of the railway lines which run to the north of the colliery is now the tram route into the city centre & the Sheffield Parkway road now enters the city to the south of the colliery through the word Lane in Nunnery Lane.

 Photo by Frank Lawson.

Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Produced at the colliery after 1947 with it being marked NCB - National Coal Board.

Webster & Co.

Photo taken at Barlborough Heritage Centre.

This brickworks is recorded in Kelly's 1923 to 1935 editions as Webster & Co, (Sheffield) Limited, manufacturers of silica bricks, fire bricks, magnesite, bricks, gangster, compo & building bricks at the Marriott Wood Works, Archer Road, Sheffield & trading as "Webco, Sheffield." 
Just to note John Gregory & Son are listed in White's 1901, 1905 & 1908 editions as owning the Marriott Wood Works before Webster & Co took over in 1923 & I will cover Gregory & Son who also owned other brickworks in Sheffield in my next Sheffield post.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1920.

1920 map showing the location of Webster's brickworks on Archer Road which I have coloured yellow. Also within the coloured area on this map is the marked Victoria Works & this was owned by the Laycock Engineering Co. but I am unsure which where their buildings.

A photo of the brickworks on Picture Sheffield can be seen at this link.;EQUALS;s12412&pos=2&action=zoom If you click on the zoom image tab, it opens a new page with a closer view of the brickworks.

Henry Crapper & The Wisewood Brick Co/Brick & Tile Co.

I first start with events that took place in 1864 when the Great Sheffield Flood took place. An account of which can be read at this link & from where I have gathered the following information.

On the 11th & 12th of March 1864 the newly built Dale Dyke reservoir burst it's banks & flooded the Loxley valley resulting in loss of life, damage to houses & industrial properties. One of the claims for compensation was by Thomas Marshall & William Crapper who owned a brickworks in Loxley & were described as clay & brick dealers. Marshall & Crapper were paid compensation which totalled £1,600 pounds for the loss of their buildings, brick production etc. A full list can be read at this link.

Marshall & Crapper are listed in White's 1879 edition as brickmakers in Loxley, Sheffield. We then find William Crapper & Thomas Marshall went their separate ways possibly before 1893. Thomas Marshall & Co are next listed in  Whites 1901 edition at Storrs Bridge, Loxley. 

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

With Frank Lawson photographing this H. & W. C. brick I am taking it that William is now in partnership with Henry Crapper & possibly they are brothers. Henry Crapper is listed in Kelly's 1893 edition at Wisewood, Sheffield & the location of their works can be seen on the surveyed 1901/03 map below. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey surveyed 1901/03 published 1906.

Another example of one of Henry & William's bricks.

With these two bricks being stamped exor, both Henry & William must have passed away. 

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

White's 1901 edition records the entry of Crappers Brick Co. Lim. with Robert Craig as secetary & registered office of 22 York Street, Sheffield & at Loxley. So I am taking it that Robert Craig was administrating the Crappers Brick Co. after William & Henry's deaths. Then further down the brick & tile makers section in this 1901 edition is the first listing for the newly formed Wisewood Brick Co. at Wisewood, Loxley, Sheffield with William Frankish as Managing Director. So it looks like this new company had taken over the Crappers' works in 1901 & an example of this new Company's bricks is shown below.

Photo taken at the Barlborough Heritage Centre.

The Wisewood Brick Co. is next recorded in the London Gazette as being voluntarily wound up at an extraordinary General Meeting of the Company on the 16th February 1904.

White's 1905 edition again records the Crappers Brick Co. & Robert Craig, but this time just with the office address. So the Crappers Brick Co. may have only existed as a registered company at this date. Also in this 1905 edition is a listing for The Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. at Wisewood, Loxley, Sheffield. So it now appears that a new company had been established in 1905 at the works after the Wisewood Brick Co. had been wound up in 1904. White's 1908 now records this works as the Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. Loxley Road, Malin Bridge.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

This frog design was used by many local brick companies & we can date it's introduction to around 1910. The Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. do not appear in White's 1919 edition & I have also found that the Boundary Rolling Mill had been built on the site of the former brickworks. So the brickworks had closed sometime between 1908 & 1919.

C. Keyworth.

Photo taken at the Barlborough Heritage Centre.

Charles Keyworth is recorded as the proprietor of the New Patent Plastic Brick Company on Halifax Road, Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield from 1898 to 1913. Mrs Elizabeth Brindley is then recorded as proprietress at the works in 1916. A gentleman on the Sheffield Forum website has put forward the theory that Mrs. Elizabeth Brindley could have been Charles' married daughter & had taken over the works after his death. The Wadsley Bridge works on Halifax Road is then recorded as being operated by the Sheffield Brick Co. in Kelly's 1919 edition & this works is still shown as being in operation on a map dated 1948.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey revised 1901.

Photo by MF courtesy of the Frank Lawson Collection.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

The New Patent Plastic Brick Co. example above was more than likely made during Charles tenure of the works. The 'New Patent Plastic' part of the company's name suggests that the works was now using a Hoffmann type kiln to produce their bricks. Many brick companies which includes Nottingham, Sheffield, Leeds & Leicester to name a few added Patent to their company name after they had built these patented Hoffman kilns which vastly increased their brick production output.

 Photo by Frank Lawson. 

Frank has found two examples of these key bricks in Sheffield, so he has suggested that Charles Keyworth may have made these bricks with the key mark being his trade mark.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

This Wadsley Bridge Brick Co. brick could have been made by Charles before he renamed his company to the New Patent Plastic Brick Co. From the few trade directories that I do have dated 1901 to 1908, the works is listed as the N.P.P. Brick Co., so I am working on the theory that the company could have existed just as the Wadsley Bridge Brick Co. before 1901. Only by finding earlier trade directories will resolve this matter. 

Don Brick Co.

  Photo by Frank Lawson. 

The Don Brick Co. is listed in White's 1901 edition at Leppings Bridge, Sheffield.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey  1900. 

1900 map showing the location of the Don Brick Works on Leppings Lane which was situated across the road from Sheffield Wednesday's football ground.

I wish to thank the following in helping me bring the history of these Sheffield brickmakers to the web :-

Malcolm Adlington & Michael Hardy - 20 Well family info & photos

Frank Lawson - photos & info

Barlborough Heritage Centre - photos

The contributors of the Sheffield History website

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